Sunday, May 17, 2020

Organizational Structure for Hydrobuck - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 897 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Junqiang (Jason) LI ISE 517 Dear Ms Wanda Fields: Whether a company is newly forming or already established, it’s very important that the company have a strong leadership system and effective organizational structure. In an effort to continue your company’s growth and vitality, I strongly recommend that Hydrobuck change organizational structure as Hydrobuck is now planning to design and produce motor in the 50-150 horsepower range. After careful consideration, I found the functional organization would be the best organizational structure for your company to reach your planned objective. Introduction to Functional Organization Functional Organizational Structure [pic] Figure 1: Example of Functional Organization From: Steve Benshoof Advantage of Functional Organization 1. â€Å"Highly flexible staff use† 2. â€Å"Ease of switching experts among projects in same functional division† 3. â€Å"Specialist pooling in functional division† 4. â⠂¬Å"Technological continuity† 5. â€Å"Quicker career advancement of specialists† Disadvantage of Functional Organization 1. â€Å"Project not client focused† 2. â€Å"Different goals between functional parent division and project† 3. Project manager competes with financial manager for role of central project responsibility† 4. â€Å"Slow response to client needs† 5. â€Å"Weaker project team motivation than in pure project organization† Functional organization would best suit the company’s current situation and objective. 1. Hydrobuck is a medium-sized company which doesn’t have a lot of human resources but needs to continue producing the small motors. Functional organization would be more advantageous than other organizational structures because it has highly flexible staff use and it’s easier for Hydrobuck to switch experts between small motors and large motors projects. . As pursuing the opportunity of the large motors is the main objective of Hydrobuck currently, functional organization would make it possible to pool specialist in functional division to focus on that project. 3. The internal workings of the large motors are quite similar to those of the smaller motors. Thus functional organization is more advantageous than other organizational form because it can provide the advantage of technological continuity. 4. Hydrobuck is the leading producer of small motors, and I believe the clients would be confident of the large motors Hydrobuck produced. Thus, although functional organization is not client focused, there will be no problem in marketing as long as the new product is of fine quality. Successful examples are everywhere in the market: Sony, who achieved great success with walkman, also made a great profit from walkman’s related products, such as Mini-Disc and Mp3 because of consumers’ confidence in Sony’s audio products. Moreover, purposely assigning a mark eting team to follow the client needs can help to pass the feedback from clients to the technological team and to reduce the negative effect of the disadvantages of slow response to client needs. . Hydrobuck is financially secure, so project managers can have full project authority and avoid competition between the project managers and financial manager over the responsibility for the central project. 6. The project team motivation would be stronger than in pure project organization because designing, producing and selling the large motors is the main goal of the project team. A qualified project manager could also play an important role in motivating workers. 7. This organizational form is more flexible compared with the other forms. As we don’t know whether the large motors project will succeed or not, this flexibility can be conducive to continue on producing small motors. 8. Functional organization is more superior in terms of tolerating the risk of failure of that pro ject. If Hydrobuck use functional organization, it would not rely on the success of the new project as much as using the other organizations, such as matrix project organization and pure project organization. Once the new project fail, Hydrobuck does not have to change the organizational structure. . Functional organization would avoid the stockpiling of expertise and equipment to assure a critical state is never reached since the expert and the equipment would not be attached to the new project and would be flexible to switch between small motors producing and large motor project. And since Hydrobuck is a medium sized company, and doesn’t have a lot of experts and equipments, the negative effect of stockpiling expertise and equipment would be relatively large. 10. Hydrobuck need to continue producing small size motors, and if functional organization is implemented, there will not be problems of inconsistency in carry out policies and procedures because the staff would wor k at a constant department and does not need to switch between project team frequently. 11. Although functional organization would be less effective in carrying out a project, two years will provide enough time for Hydrobuck to meet the objective of the large motors project. (see Figure 4) [pic] Figure4: Rated Effectiveness of Different Project Structures by Type of Project From Steve Benshoof Weighing the pros and cons of the functional organization, the functional organization is our best option since hydrobuck is medium-sized company and the leading producer of small outboard motors. Conclusion Functional organization have the advantages of 1)Highly flexible staff use; 2)Ease of switching experts among projects in same functional division; 3)Specialist pooling in functional division; 4)Technological continuity; 5)Quicker career advancement of specialists. All of them are of great benefit for Hydrobuck, which is a medium-sized producer of gasoline-powered outboard motors and a financially-secured leading producer of small outboard motors. If my suggestion is accepted, not only the Hydrobuck’s vitality and growth will continue, but that Hydrobuck can catch the opportunity of large outboard motors. I sincerely hope that you can seriously take my advice into consideration Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Organizational Structure for Hydrobuck" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Difference Between Appearance And Reality - 2249 Words

Katrina Voorman December 15, 2014 Mrs. Norman Period 8 English III H Research Paper Many times, humans cannot-or choose not to-understand the difference between appearance and reality. For example, an actor or actress in a play dons a costume to portray a character. After doing so, the actor or actress play is no longer depicting themselves, but someone different altogether. Doing so alters the reality of whom they are in the performance and who they really are. Until they take off their costume, they are someone else entirely. In day to day life, many people hide negative emotions with a smile. A smile is the best guise against depressive emotions. It gives the impression that someone is okay, and that all is well. People assume that a smile means that someone is jovial, happy, or even in a neutral mood, when in reality, they are hiding how they really feel behind a mask. By doing so, people are able to conceal their true feelings and intentions. Shakespeare’s classic comedy, â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream†, presents â€Å"a deep ironic contr ast exists between manner and matter, between style and content, between the way people are behaving and what the words are actually saying.† (Rahn, â€Å"Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Sex, Satire and the Supernatural†, Throughout action in the play, many of the characters are unable to decipher the difference between appearances versus reality in numerous different cases. The disguises present in this classicShow MoreRelatedAppearance Vs Reality Essay1151 Words   |  5 PagesAppearance and Reality There are numerous philosophical concepts that have been developed over the years. Great philosophical minds have come up with new ideas and created debates that have lasted for many years. Some of the most renowned philosophers include Socrates, Friedrich Nietzsche, Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Rene Descartes, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, and John Locke. Modern day philosophy borrows heavily from the work that was created by early philosophers. The philosophers have beenRead MoreThe Reality Of The Beholder From The Ancient Dialogues From Plato And Socrates1263 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is Reality? I plan on discussing each section of this essay; however, they do coincide with each other in the topic. I will try to explain my reasoning on how they would question relates to one another. First, what is the difference between appearance and reality? What is the reality of being in a new place, instead of being in a society of other people around you? Does one person think they can another’s perception of their world? Does everything lead to good, and what is good in theRead MoreBorn in the 5th century BCE, Plato was a rationalist, idealist philosopher, believing that we are1100 Words   |  5 Pagesquestion of ‘What is reality?’, that he called the theory of Forms (Solomon, et al., 2012). According to Plato, the Forms are a perfect ideal of an object or a concept, which is unchanging and innate within us (Solomon, et al., 2012). It is because of the Forms, according to Plato, that we have the ability to know what something is even though we may not have seen that exact thing before (Solomon, et al., 2012). According to Plato, an appearance is what you see. The appearance is what we see, it isRead MoreEssay on Huck Finn: Appearance Versus Reality1157 Words   |  5 Pagesimpression they get. The appearance people see will usually satisfy them without further investigating into the reality of a situation. The difference between appearance and reality can be quite different. This also applies to literature. There are many instances where an author will describes a character as kind, but is actually deceptive and mean. In the novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, there are characters and situations that show how appearances can differ from reality. The three main instancesRead MoreTartuffe: Truth and Religious Teachings Essay893 Words   |  4 Pages2850 TR54C October 13, 2009 The Illusions That Define Us: Appearance versus Reality â€Å"Men in general judge more from appearances than from reality. All men have eyes, but few have the gift of penetration.† That quote by Nicollo Machiavelli is simply defined as, what you see is not always what you get and few men have the gift of being able to see through an appearance. In Tartuffe and Monkey, appearances are far from reality in many instances. Even though both texts were written in differentRead MoreMacbeth - Appearance vs. Reality1537 Words   |  7 PagesAppearance vs. Reality – Macbeth: Commentary Macbeth is a play written by William Shakespeare, which focuses on the life of Macbeth. Out of the four Shakespearean play categories, it is categorized as a tragedy, as the events of the play ultimately lead to the downfall of the protagonist, Macbeth. 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Of course, regarding the fact that Plato and Nietzsche lived in different time periods, they had their differences that conflict with each other’s theories. But they do have something to agree upon; they both argue that humans live in an illusory world of our own that we think is reality when we actually are not. One important idea they disagree on is their concepts on what is reality and whatRead MoreOthello Essay, Appearance vs Reality1175 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history there has been a general understanding that appearances can be deceiving. A person may go through life without anyone understanding the true reality of their character. William Shakespeare, one of the greatest writers of all time, understood the relationship between appearance and reality and often g ave characters two sides to their personality. One of the most fundamental questions in philosophy is the one of appearance vs. reality. We find ourselves asking the question of what is genuinelyRead MoreEpistemology, By Robert Nozick918 Words   |  4 Pagesmust be believable or it will not be considered knowledge. Many people believe that knowledge is based off of only beliefs, but it’s also based off of truth too. You have to combine truth and beliefs into two to create knowledge, giving us the difference between the false and the truth. Epistemology is important due to the fundamentals of the way we think. In the article of â€Å"Conditions for Knowledge† Robert Nozick believes that a belief is somewhat of a fact without some truth. Nozick calls this

Wooquer Case Analysis free essay sample

?With the rapid evolution and expansion of the Indian retail environment, Madura FL’s ability to morph in response to market demands and consumer needs is nonnegotiable. Engaging and managing their workforce is highly important as success within the retail industry is directly correlated to supporting a consistent brand image and providing a superior customer experience. With broadly distributed locations and employee base, it is crucial that consistent standard operating procedures be established and implemented to facilitate their ambitious expansion plans. To address this issue, Madura FL should implement a cloud platform such as Wooqer to achieve operational effectiveness while enabling flexibility and real time collaboration to support consistency and innovation. In the effort to capitalize upon the rapidly growing apparel sector, leadership at Madura looks to increase revenues by increasing market share through expanding to new store locations. Arising with this geographic expansion is the critical need for efficient management of training, compliance, and SOPs. Coverage and consistency of these procedures is imperative to the operational efficiency and positioning of Madura, as a superior customer experience could not be delivered without a clear knowledge of the company, brand, and product. Customization and flexibility is also important to MFL as within a changing, competitive, and diverse environment, it is essential to innovation and establishing a competitive advantage in delivering value. With competition increasing within the sector, the assurance of quality, consistency, and superior customer experience is key to success and longevity. With values that honor human touch, empowerment, responsiveness to consumer needs, and effective communication, MFL looks to enhance their strategic positioning by harnessing the power of technology to implement a comprehensive approach that reflects these values. With operations over 5 channels and over 200 cities with 8 premium brands, maintaining effective informational systems and consistent standard operating procedures are essential to enabling Madura’s alignment with their company values. Engaging, developing, and managing the MFL workforce is first priority as the complexity of managing operations intensifies with expansion. The workforce must be well educated on SOPs, enabled with the resources to successful complete all requirements, and monitored to ensure quality. Given the geographic and demographic diversity of their locations, customization of the training modules must be enabled to facilitate responsiveness to customer needs through the empowerment of leadership, without violating consistency. Current IT solutions available to Madura lacked sufficient consistency and coverage capabilities and were ineffective in managing remote programs. Very few solutions were able to assist in SOP training compliance monitoring. These solutions also hindered Madura’s ability to innovate and adapt to changes in their company’s process, which in turn delayed access to pertinent business information resulting in ineffectiveness. Venkatagiri and Prakash state, â€Å"†¦large-scale IT systems were found to be rigid on the strategic front. ERP systems were criticized for prescribing business processes, rather than accommodating them†(2013). Significant investments have been made by MFL that arguably are capable of satisfying the future demands of the growing company. Multiple platforms were integrated to form a solution that addressed many of the issues faced in the early 2000’s. Their successful implementation of the ERP and SAP greatly improved the consistency of their implementation systems. However, though these strategies successfully enhanced their business practices, gaps still remained in communication, flexibility, and collaboration. â€Å"†¦it was difficult to incorporate mid-course changes as and when the company’s processes evolved. Consequently, any gaps in execution were patched by mechanisms such as emails, spreadsheets, phone calls, and SMS messages. This led to business information becoming inefficient to access†(Venkatagiri and Prakash, 2013). However, by choosing a more malleable solution such as Wooqer, not only would issues regarding the consistency in the training and management of the workforce be addressed, but business practices would be streamlined allowing for resource optimization. â€Å"†¦immediate benefits included the streamlining of various processes that were already running across the organization †¦we found ourselves being able to achieve a lot more with the same set of resources†(Prasad, 2012). With high user centricity and no infrastructure requirements, customization to specific roles, individuals, and geographies is enabled promoting innovation. â€Å"Wooqer has assisted in the democratization of ideas by making sharing of ideas and thoughts more free and open. It has also helped in seeking a majority opinion before implementing the key operational decisions† (Prasad, 2012). Consistent coverage and quality assurance would be ensured as training modules, skills training, etc. , could be provided online and feedback from consumers could be instantly addressed. Real-time analysis and reporting is also supported by a platform such as Wooqer, which increases operational effectiveness. With primary data sources readily available, effective decisions can quickly be made. â€Å"The platform’s analytics offered real-time visibility into usage patterns†¦client firms began to derive actionable insights on what was working and what was not. This led to better effort allocation and cost optimization across stores†(Venkatagiri and Prakash, 2013). Clients implementing Wooqer’s platform experienced approximately a 28% increase in consistency, 3x increase in coverage, and an 87% reduction in effort (Exhibit 10, p10). As MFL moves towards expansion, it is critical that they align their IT strategy with their goal of maintaining value. Effectively engaging and managing their workforce are issues that must be addressed as consistency of operation is essential to the success of Madura FL. To achieve this goal, a service such as Wooqer should be implemented to assist in integrating their business practices to enhance communication, collaboration, and innovation. By utilizing such a technology, the crucial establishment of consistent SOPs would be enabled, supporting its future expansion.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Nothing free essay sample

The menu is famous for integrating roasted nuts (hazelnuts, pistachios, almonds), GianduJa, Orange Peel, dried Strawberry bits, and more. Recently, Patchi introduced 5 new exotic flavors to its menu with Cotton Candy, Cheesecake, Peanut Butter in some of the recipes. [7] Presence[edit] A Patchi outlet in Taguig City, Philippines Expansion Network The business is well expanded and properly established at 28 countries spread amongst the globe with a great deal of focus on the Middle East The Home of Patchi as well as recognizable presence in North Africa, Asia Pacific, etc. Countries are: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Canada (Online), Egypt, France, Chinese Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Jordan, KSA, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico (Online), Morocco, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Syria, South Africa, Tunisia, IJAE, I-JK, Ukraine, and USA. [8] As for the boutiques network it consists of 145 boutiques, fairly distributed according to market demand and expertise in the field. Patchis online boutique caters to the North American markets at http:// usa. We will write a custom essay sample on Nothing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Patchi. com and http://canada. patchi. com. Worldwide Store locations can be ound on this page. Industrial network and divisions[edit] Patchi has a network of 5 factories, in: Lebanon, KSA, UAE, Syria Egypt. Aside from chocolate, Patchi runs 4 other manufacturing divisions, one which produces all packages (printing section), another that produces the Silver Line (Patchi Silver), the porcelain section (creation various fillings for chocolates) and finally the Flower division or in other words the section that caters for the development of chocolate decoration and all other forms of ornaments. nothing By poiuytrewqlkJhfdsa Nothing free essay sample It Is very important for me to express to you how much you really mean to me. Wish I could do this in person while holding you in my arms and gazing into your eyes But since we are physically separated by miles of emptiness, this expression must come In the form of letters such as this. Nice, I know It is difficult for you, as It Is for me, to have a long distance relationship. We had met through a social networking site and I keep on hoping to meet you soon In person.Although we have not seen each other yet, but Im pretty sure that my feelings for you Is pure ; true. Life seems to be full of trials in this type of relationship we have, which test our Inner strength, and more Importantly, our devotion and love for one another. After all, It Is said that True Love Is boundless and Immeasurable and overcomes all forms of diversity. We will write a custom essay sample on Nothing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In truth, If It Is genuine, It will grow stronger with each assault upon Its existence.Nice, our love has been assaulted many times and I am convinced that It Is true because the longer I am away from you, the greater is my yearning to be with you. You are my Charming Prince and I am your devoted Princess. I cherish any thought of you, prize any memory of you that rises from the depths of my mind and live for the day when our physical separation will no longer be. Until that moment arrives, I send to you across the miles, my tender love, my warm embrace and my most passionate kiss. Love always, Nothing free essay sample D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes. 2. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? A) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. B) The residual volume of the lungs decreases. C) The diaphragm contracts. D) The epiglottis closes. E) The rib cage expands. 3. A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of A) 1,450 mL. D) 5,000 mL. B) 4,000 mL. E) 5,450 mL. C) 4,450 mL. 300-Organisms in water use countercurrent exchange for gas diffusion. A. How does this work? Blood flows in the opposite direction to water passing over the gills, blood is always less saturated with O2 than the water it meets (remember higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure! ). Gills have several outfoldings to increase surface area and exchange B. We will write a custom essay sample on Nothing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Why do organisms living in water need to do this? The water medium has inherently lower concentrations of oxygen and higher viscosity of air so countercurrent exchange helps to facilitate diffusion 400-1. The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? A) nitric acid D) carbon dioxide B) nitrogen E) carbon monoxide C) oxygen 2. Blood carbon dioxide levels determine the pH of other body fluids as well as blood, including the pH of cerebrospinal fluid. How does this enable the organism to control breathing? A) The brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly. B) The medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing. C) The brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide. D) Stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla to speed up or slow breathing. E) The medulla is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood. 1 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th 3. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in A) the partial pressure of oxygen. D) temperature. B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide. E) pH. C) hemoglobin concentration. 500-How are gas exchange and circulation coordinated in the human lungs? Blood arrives in the lungs has low partial pressure of O2 and a high partial pressure of CO2 relative to air in the alveoli -In alveoli-O2 diffuses into the blood and CO2 diffuses into the air -In tissue capillaries, O2 diffuses into interstitial fluids and CO2 diffuses into the blood Birds do it, bees do it, †¦ 100-Evidence that parthenogenic whiptail lizards are derived from sexually reproducing ancestors includes A) the requirement for male-like behaviors in some females before their partners will ovulate. B) the development and then regression of testes prior to sexual maturation. C) the observation that all of the offspring are haploid. D) dependence on favorable weather conditions for ovulation to occur. E) the persistence of a vestigial penis among some of the females. 200-Name two reasons for and two reasons against asexual reproduction. For: -do not waste energy finding a mate -rapid reproduction colonization in favorable habitats -ensures gene pool is passed to next generation Against: -pathogens can decimate clonal populations -loss of genetic diversity -cannot easily rid population of harmful mutation 300-Internal vs external fertilization. Make one comparison and one contrast Comparison -both produce zygotes -both are sexual reproduction Contrasts -External-many gametes for both sexes (not just male) -Greater parental investment (internal) -invest reproductive energy differently b. Where and when does fertilization occur in humans? Oviduct/fallopian tube, ovulation 400-1. In vertebrate animals, spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ, in that A) oogenesis begins at the onset of sexual maturity, whereas spermatogenesis happens in embryonic development. B) oogenesis produces four haploid cells, whereas spermatogenesis produces only one functional spermatozoon. C) cytokinesis is unequal in oogenesis, whereas it is equal in spermatogenesis. D) oogenesis ends at menopause, whereas spermatogenesis is finished before birth. E) spermatogenesis is not completed until after fertilization occurs, but oogenesis is completed by the time a girl is born. 2. Mature human sperm and ova are similar in that A) they both have the same number of chromosomes. 2 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th B) they are approximately the same size. C) they each have a flagellum that provides motility. D) they are produced from puberty until death. E) they are formed before birth. 00- For both men and women, the hypothalmus is releasing __________ which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete _____________ and ______________. GnRH, FSH, LH In turn, these hormones are in part controlled by what two main hormonal products in women and one main hormonal product in men. estradiol and progesterone, testosterone When does meiosis II occur for sperm and for a n oocyte? sperm- before ejaculated oocyte-after fertilization If It’s Yellow†¦ 100-1. The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that A) urea can be exchanged for Na+. B) urea is less toxic than ammonia. C) urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia. D) urea does not affect the osmolar gradient. E) less nitrogen is removed from the body. 200-Match the following with their excretory system 1. Earthworms (D) 2. Crickets (E) 3. Flatworms (A) 4. Humans (B) 5. Jellyfish (C) 300-1. Put the following in the correct order A. Ascending Loop of Henle B. Descending Loop of Henle C. Collecting Duct D. Distal Tubule E. Proximal Tubule F. Bowmans capsule and glomerulus F-E-B-A-D-C 2. Where are these tubes, etc found and are there many of them in the human body? Nephron of the kidney, Yes, ~80 million 3. After the last step listed here where does the filtrate go on its final journey out of the body? Renal pelvis to ureter to urinary bladder to urethra 400-1. Which one of the following is extremely important for water conservation in mammals? A) juxtamedullary nephrons B) Bowmans capsule C) urethra D) podocytes E) ureter 3 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th 2. What makes these components so special? Longer loop of Henle that goes deep into medulla 500-Picking 2 components, explain how they work to concentrate urine. Proximal Tubule Loop of Henle Distal Tubule Collecting Duct In the Nephron Cortex: †¢ Blood flows from the renal artery into the afferent arteriole †¢ Blood enters the capillaries of the glomerulus where blood pressure forces filtrate into the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule (filtrate consists of salts, glucose, and other small molecules – no blood cells or plasma proteins as they are too large to filter through the capillaries) †¢ In the proximal tubule: From the Bowman’s capsule, filtrate passes through the Proximal tubule where Na+ (which results in passive transport of Cl- ions in the form of NaCl), K+, glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate buffer and other nutrients are absorbed into the interstitial fluid and transported through the peritubular capillaries (water follows via osmosis as the interstitial fluid becomes hyperosmotic to the filtrate) Also the site of waste filtration (like processed drugs from the liver) via nonselective filtration from the interstitial fluid and surrounding tissues This is also the site of pH regulation of body fluids as transport epithelium secrete H+ and buffering NH3 to form ammonium ions (NH4+) In the Medulla: †¢ Loop of Henle 1) Filtrate enters the Loop of Henle from the Proximal Tubule 2) Descending Limb carries it down into the Medulla. . Descending Limb is semi-permeable. Water may pass through but ions may not. . Medulla has high osmolarity, causing water to pass from the Loop of Henle into the Medulla. 3) Ascending Limb carries filtrate back up from the Medulla . Ascending Limb is not permeable to water . Dissolved ions are actively transported from the filtrate into the Medulla, increasing its osmolarity. 1) Blood travels through the Vasa Recta in the opposite direction of filtrate in the Loop of Henle. 2) As blood travels down into the medulla, it absorbs some of the ions transported from the Ascending Limb, increasing osmolarity. 3) When blood flows back out of the medulla al ongside the Descending Limb, water is reabsorbed from the Medulla, maintaining its high osmolarity. III. Summary 1) Both the Loop of Henle and the Vasa Recta are countercurrent multipliers that act to conserve water. 2) About 90% of the water in the filtrate is reabsorbed into the bloodstream by the time it reaches the Distal Tubule. Back to the Nephron Cortex: †¢ In the Distal tubule: Much like the proximal tubule but primarily focused on NaCl reabsorption and K+ secretion into the filtrate pH regulation via reabsorption of bicarbonate and secretion of H+ ions into the filtrate Collecting Duct: †¢ The collecting duct then carries filtrate into the renal pelvis †¢ Site of urine concentration / dilution When kidneys are conserving water, surrounding interstitial fluid is hyperosmotic to the filtrate, thus aquaporin allow water to pass through the walls of the duct into the interstitial fluid 4 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th When kidneys are expelling water, surrounding interstitial fluid is hypoosmotic to the filtrate, thus kidney reabsorbs salts into the interstitial fluid without letting water follow MisMash 100-1. How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans? A) bicarbonate ions in the plasma B) CO2 attached to hemoglobin C) carbonic acid in the erythrocytes D) CO2 dissolved in the plasma E) bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin 2, Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with A) hemoglobin. B) plasma proteins. C) carbon dioxide. D) carbonic acid. E) plasma buffers. 200-1. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, so this means that compared to the seawater around them, they are Hypoosmotic, Hyperosmotic or Isoosmotic. Isoosmotic 2. What happens when you put one in a freshwater environment? They will be hyperosmotic to their environment and will not be able osmoregulate and will take on water from environment 300-organisms have evolved several different methods to maximize the efficiencies of different processes. Explain how the organisms have evolved. 1. Deep sea diving mammals such as the Weddell seal and gas exchangecarry 5x amount of oxygen as humans, slow heart rate and limit blood circulation to vital organs 2. Albatrosses can drink salty water -have salt glands consisting of arteries, veins, capillaries and secretory tubules designed to remove remove salt from the blood 400-Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes? A) filtration B) ultrafiltration C) selective reabsorption D) secretion E) active transport 500- 1. How does ADH function at the cellular level? A) ADH stimulates the reabsorption of glucose through channel proteins. B) It triggers the synthesis of an enzyme that makes the phospholipid bilayer more permeable to water. C) It causes membranes to include more phospholipids that have unsaturated fatty acids. D) It causes an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells. E) It decreases the speed at which filtrate flow through the nephron leading to increased reabsorption of water. 2. How do ADH and RAAS work together in maintaining osmoregulatory homeostasis? A) ADH monitors osmolarity of the blood and RAAS regulates blood volume. 5 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th B) ADH monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and RAAS maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na+ reabsorption. C) ADH an RAAS work antagonistically; ADH stimulates water reabsorption during dehydration and RAAS removal of water when it is in excess in body fluids. D) Both stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone which increases both blood volume and pressure. E) Only when they are together in the receptor sites of proximal tubule cells, will reabsorption of essential nutrients back into the blood take place. 6

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Westward Expansion

Westward Expansion The Affect on Native Americans Writer and historian Noel Ignatiev posed the question, â€Å"What is the role of westward expansion in American culture?† His answer points the reader in an entirely different direction than a person of average patriotic and historic beliefs would have expected. What was and is our belief about ourselves as we examine the westward expansion are both as enlightening as it is painful. This, of course depends on whose historical perspective it is. The proud history widely recognized by most Americans, focuses on the story of the Puritans quest for freedom and the expansion west as natural extension of this movement to the new continent. It tells of the struggles and successes, colonization of the new world, as well as the heroic fight for independence from England. However, from the perspective of the black slaves or Native Americans, the story of our heritage and the subsequent expansion west is much less than heroic. It is a story of man’s inhumanity to his fellow beings.1 During the nineteenth century just after the War of 1812 there was a significant migration of people with no land and no slaves to remaining lands in the east. Around this time speculators were making a great deal of money selling land, sometimes making ten times what they would pay for it. Professor William Scarborough in an Internet article about the Indians displacement in the 19th century writes of one man, â€Å"Guy S. Whitfield of Alabama, who said he was making a thousand dollars a week for land speculation.† When the land was purchased it need to be cleared and worked. The demand for labor increased and contributed to the growth of the slave trade. â€Å"Mississippi, 1. Noel Ignatiev, â€Å"Noel Ignatiev on the role of westward expansion.† Judgment Day, pars. 1-4 [article online] accessed 16 February 2003. Available from for example, the slave... Free Essays on Westward Expansion Free Essays on Westward Expansion Westward Expansion The Affect on Native Americans Writer and historian Noel Ignatiev posed the question, â€Å"What is the role of westward expansion in American culture?† His answer points the reader in an entirely different direction than a person of average patriotic and historic beliefs would have expected. What was and is our belief about ourselves as we examine the westward expansion are both as enlightening as it is painful. This, of course depends on whose historical perspective it is. The proud history widely recognized by most Americans, focuses on the story of the Puritans quest for freedom and the expansion west as natural extension of this movement to the new continent. It tells of the struggles and successes, colonization of the new world, as well as the heroic fight for independence from England. However, from the perspective of the black slaves or Native Americans, the story of our heritage and the subsequent expansion west is much less than heroic. It is a story of man’s inhumanity to his fellow beings.1 During the nineteenth century just after the War of 1812 there was a significant migration of people with no land and no slaves to remaining lands in the east. Around this time speculators were making a great deal of money selling land, sometimes making ten times what they would pay for it. Professor William Scarborough in an Internet article about the Indians displacement in the 19th century writes of one man, â€Å"Guy S. Whitfield of Alabama, who said he was making a thousand dollars a week for land speculation.† When the land was purchased it need to be cleared and worked. The demand for labor increased and contributed to the growth of the slave trade. â€Å"Mississippi, 1. Noel Ignatiev, â€Å"Noel Ignatiev on the role of westward expansion.† Judgment Day, pars. 1-4 [article online] accessed 16 February 2003. Available from for example, the slave...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Human resources in hospitality & Marketing Hospitality Research Paper

Human resources in hospitality & Marketing Hospitality - Research Paper Example Managing human resources in hospitality is a challenging experience that requires effective planning and high level of competency (Hayes & Ninemeier, 2009). An article by Jarpi (2007) explains more about human resource in hospitality. The article explains that owners of hospitality business must be rational critical thinkers and have deep understanding on the changing rules and regulations. The author further argues that promotion of employees in the hospitality industry should be based on skills and experience. Incompetent workforce is dangerous to work with since it contributes to poor performance of the business. In this regard, effective policies should be put in place to ensure smooth operation of the workforce in an organization (Ming-chih, Haiyan & Kevin, 2011). Marketing hospitality refers to the process of selling out products and services of a hospitality firm to the target market. Marketing hospitality takes different forms, for instance; advertising, product promotion, offering of competitive prices, branding and many others.. According to Reid & Bojanic (2010), effective marketing strategies should be employed in order to boost sales and profitability in the hospitality sector. Fields (2014) wrote an article postulating various hospitality marketing strategies that can be used to boost the profits of a hospitality firm. The article states that extensive market research and establishment of realistic plans for achieving the foreseen goals and objectives of a business firm are the basic factors to success. In addition, Fields further states that, accountability is a crucial factor to consider as far as marketing hospitality is concerned. The article outlines that advertisements can be done through the print and electronic media, depending on the target market and the firm’s financial position. The modern technology has aided in providing numerous avenues for posting advertisements. For instance, the use of social media

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Wells Fargo & Company Financial Ratios Analysis Research Paper

Wells Fargo & Company Financial Ratios Analysis - Research Paper Example The bank has positioned itself with a niche in specialized lending activities. It is the nation’s largest consumer lending bank with profits as high as $4 billion for the third quarter of 2011. Since 2008, Wells Fargo & Company has enjoyed increased revenue year by year until 2010. The three quarters for 2011 have however, experienced an increase in its earnings. The highest rise in its net income was attained from 2008 to 2009 of 362% increase i.e. from $ 2,655, 000 to $12,275,000. This has since then stabilized at the $12million range. Financial ratios analysis Profitability ratios Return on assets The ratio was 0.96% in 2008 and has risen to 5% in 2010. The return on assets has been increasing steadily from 2009 to date. It rose sharply in 2008/2009. Investment in bonds and notes, preferred and common stocks and other securities in its diversified portfolio of assets have seen a tremendous rise in its assets for the last three years. The ratio indicates that the returns from use of assets in the company are effectively invested in to generate high earnings for the bank. A comparison with the peer shows a big difference. The peer has ROA of 2.2% currently and the trend for the 4 years is an increase from 0.8%. Return on equity The ratio rose sharply in 2008 – 2009 then has stabilized for the following years. The ratio was at 4.84 in 2008 then rose to 10.42. Currently, the range is 10 – 11. That of its peers rags behind with 2008 having a negative of 3.86, and in 2010 a ROE of 5.10. Wells Fargo and Company has doubled its ROE in comparison to its peer group. The ma nagement team of Wells Fargo & Company has done a tremendous job in investing the shareholders equity and generating a high return therefrom. The return on equity is very high compared to its industry. The management has achieved this high mark through the investment strategies it has adopted. The company retained earnings are as high as $61 million this year compared to $48.9 million in September, 2010. These have been used as internal equity for reinvestment. The company investments are seen as a high diversified portfolio in the different sectors of the economy. The 4 year analysis of Wells Fargo financials indicate that both preferred and common equity is in surplus. The company is not highly geared, but it uses its earnings for investment purposes. The year 2008 experienced a huge increase in its equity when the company added its share capital. Efficiency ratios: Net Interest Margin – This is a measure of the difference between the cost of funds and the income generated by those funds. This stands at highs of 20.66%. The increase is owed to the reduction in provisions for credit losses. Net Noninterest Margin - Measures fees and service charges relative to noninterest expenses. It stands at 9.62%. This has resulted from the decrease in operating expenses that are not directly related to credit taking. Net Operating Margin The figure stands at an increase of 30.28% in 2011. This is owed to both reduced noninterest expense and the provision for credit losses in the year. Earnings per Share This stands at 0.72 in 2011 and has increased for the 7 consecutive quarters. This indicates that the company’s efficiency is high although its revenues have decreased. Earnings Spread This stood at 6% in 2010 compared to the third quarter of 2011 of 22%. Its peers have however, managed highs